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Glossary

Phlebology, lymphology, scar therapy – not everyone is familiar with medical terminology. Here you can find important terms with simple and concise explanations.

A  
AbsorptionReabsorption of a substance
AcraOf or pertaining to peripheral body parts, such as toes and fingers but also nose, chin, cheekbone, etc. 
AcrocyanosisBlueish peripheral (acral) body parts despite reasonably warm outside temperatures, often also cool peripheral body parts 
Air-block techniqueIn sclerotherapy, the physician injects a small amount of air prior to injecting the medication; purpose: better adherence of the agent to the wall of the vein
Allograft Exogenous transplant of human origin 
AneurysmPathological dilation of a section of the arterial wall 
AngiodysplasiaVascular malformation 
AngiographyRadiologic imaging of vessels after injecting a radiopaque dye
a) arteriography: arteries
b) phlebography: veins
c) lymphography: lymph vessels
 
AngiologyScientific study of the blood and lymph vessels
AngioplastyWidening of narrowed vessel by means of a balloon catheter
AnticoagulantsAgents that slow blood clotting
ArterialPertaining to the arteries
Arterial occlusion (acute)Sudden blockage of a normally dilated artery; mainly due to embolism from the heart, often with heart valve disease
ArterioleSmallest artery
ArteryBlood vessels that lead away from the heart and supply the tissues
ArthrodesisSurgical, artificial stiffening of a joint (ankylosis)
ArthrogenicStarting from a joint
Arthrogenic congestive syndromeStasis in the lower leg induced by stiffening the upper ankle joint in a pointed foot position
ArthropathyDisease of a joint
Artificial lymphoedema Self-induced oedema by self-mutilation (atypical, painful bluish lymphoedema)
Atrophic scarDevelops in poorly-healing wounds if insufficient connective tissue fibres are formed; sunken scar. Most well-known: acne scar
Atrophie blanche(French: blanc/blanche: white) small, round to oval, can be up to palm size, often reticular, slightly sunken white atrophic lesions of bizarre appearance on the lower leg. Particularly painful and persistent if the lesion develops into a leg ulcer.
AtrophyWasting; decrease in size of normally developed organ, tissue or cells (due to disturbance of the balance between nutritional supply and demand)
Autologous graftTransplant using the body’s own tissue
B  
Babcock proceduresee Stripping procedure 
Baker’s cystAlso popliteal cyst; bulge of the dorsal joint capsule at the knee joint (synovial hernia = rupture of the synovial membrane)
 
Block dissection Removal of regional lymph nodes in surgical cancer treatment 
Boyd's perforatorImportant connection vein (see Perforator veins), on the inside below the knee 
Buerger diseasesee Thrombangiitis obliterans 
C  
Capacitance vesselsVeins: due to their high elasticity, they fulfil the task of a blood reservoir in addition to blood transport  
Capillaries(med.) minute blood or lymph vessel 
CellulitisIn German-speaking countries: abnormal changes in the female skin seen on the gluteal and thigh areas that can sometimes be painful. In English-speaking countries: extensive progressive, severe inflammation of the subcutaneous connective and fatty tissue.
ChronicLong-term illness
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)Damage to the dermis and subcutis on the lower leg caused by varicose veins or a leg vein thrombosis; ranging from propensity toward swelling, pigment deposits, callosity of the dermis and subcutis, atrophie blanche to venous leg ulcers
Circumferential burnsCircumferential burns
Collagen Structural protein in the body 
CollapseStructural protein in the body
Fall together, breakdown
- Circulatory collapse: syncope, shock
- Circulatory collapse of the lungs: collapsed lung, e.g. in case of an injury to the chest wall
 
Collateral circulationVessels next to the main vessel that reach the same supply area and can take over if the main vessel fails
Complex decongestionType of therapy consisting of lymphatic drainage, exercises and compression bandage or stocking
Complex decongestive therapy2-phase therapy for lymphoedema and lipoedema and late-stage chronic venous insufficiency (q.v.) “Phase I of decongestion” with hygienic skin measures, frequent manual lymphatic drainage, compression bandages and decongesting movement therapy. “Phase II of maintenance and optimisation” with compression therapy, occasional manual lymphatic drainage, movement therapy, consistently applied hygienic measures. Complex decongestive therapy (CDT) can be supplemented by intermittent pneumatic compression (pneumatic compression massage) if necessary.
CompliancePatient engagement in the therapy, also treatment adherence
Compression garmentsAnatomically contoured knitted compression garments for different body areas (e.g. compression stockings)
Compression rollsElastic rolls for compression treatment
Short-stretch; stretchable up to 70%
Medium-stretch; stretchable up to 130%
Long-stretch; stretchable over 130%
Compression therapy (methods)
a) Compression bandage
b) Medical compression garments
c) Intermittent compression
Compressive behaviour How compression garments and bandages exert pressure. Determined by factors such working and resting pressure, pressure gradient and compression class
ConglomerateMassed together
ConstitutionalInnate
ContaminationInfection, impurity
ContractCondense
ContractionTightening, e.g. of a muscle
ContractureShortening of muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints that results in irreversible movement restrictions
ContraindicationReason not to use a medicine or procedure
Contrast agentalso: radiopaque dye; agents applied to cavities or vessels for radiographic imaging
Convoluted varicose veinsA bundle of varicose veins (Latin: convolvere: roll together, up or around)
Corona phlebectaticaDilation of small veins at the edge of the foot towards the ankle region, earliest sign of vein congestion (chronic venous insufficiency)
CrossectomySurgical removal/ligation of the saphenofemoral junction
Crus, cruris(Latin) lower leg
Cutaneous conditionsGeneric term for skin diseases
CyanosisBluish discolouration on the skin, lips, finger nails due to lack of oxygen in the blood
D  
Decubitus ulcerPressure ulcer: too much localised pressure with insufficient tissue nutrition; generally results in necrosis and ulcers from lying on the affected part  
Deep leg veinseins encased by muscle fascia from connective tissue (major veins and muscular veins)
Deep thrombophlebitisInflammation and thrombosis of deep veins; short form: venous thrombosis; see phlebothrombosis
Derma(Greek) skin
- Epidermis (upper layer)
- Cutis (true skin, consisting of the dermis and the epidermis)
- Subcutis (lowermost layer)
 
DermatitisInflammation of the skin  
DermatologyBranch of medicine concerned with the study of the skin and diseases of the skin 
DermatosclerosisPathological thickening of parts of the skin 
Dermis, coriumSecond skin layer 
Distal Latin: distare: to stand apart) parts of the extremities that are further away from the trunk, opposite: proximal
DiureticsMedicines that increase water excretion. These should never be used for lymphoedema or oedema due to CVI.
Dodd’s perforator Connector veins at the lower leg (see Varicose veins)
Doppler effect(see Ultrasound examinations) Sound waves are reflected by a moving body with a change in frequency. The Doppler effect can also make the blood flow audible and – if recorded – visible.
Doppler ultrasoundsee Ultrasound examinations
DrainageDehydration; medical: discharge of body fluids
Duplex ultrasoundsee Ultrasound examinations
DysplasiaMalformation
E  
EczemaExtensive, inflammatory abnormal skin changes with itching (see Dermatitis)  
ElastaneElastic synthetic material  
Elastodiene Elastic natural material 
Elastomers Collective term for naturally or artificially produced materials. They can be monofilament or multifilament fabrics and include natural rubber and synthetic rubber types.
Monofil: consisting of a single fibre; one-ply
Multifil: consisting of several individual fibres
 
ElephantiasisGross swelling of limbs due to chronic lymph congestion (see Lymphoedema) 
EmbolismObstruction in a blood vessel by a blood clot;
cause: spread of exogenous and endogenous substances that do not homogenously mix with the blood. These can form a conglomerate thereby constricting the vessel.
EmbolusDisplaced blood clot that has entered the blood stream
EndotheliumInner lining of blood and lymph vessels
EnzymesFerments, biological catalysts
EpidermisProtective outer layer of the skin
EpitheliumMulti-layer cell complex that surrounds the surface of the body
ErysipelasInfection of the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics
Erythema Reddening of the skin
Erythrocyanosis(erythrocyanosis crurum puellarum) A type of acrocyanosis (q.v.) mainly affecting young girls and women: bluish-red cool skin on the lower legs, cornification of the hair follicles on the lower legs, tendency to get chilblains
EscharDead tissue that sheds or falls off from healthy skin
EscharotomySurgical incision of the eschar to lessen constriction
ExpanderImplant that gradually expands the tissue
ExposedVisible, prominent
ExtravasateFluid in the tissues; blood, plasma or lymph fluid exuded from a vessel
ExtravascularOutside a vessel
ExtremitiesLimbs
F  
Fascia(Latin: fascia: band) minimally elastic muscle sheath from connective tissue 
FibrinProtein that is essential to clotting of blood, formed from fibrinogen 
FibrinogenPrecursor to fibrin 
FibroblastConnective tissue cell. In the case of chronic, protein-rich oedema, an increased fibroblast activity causes proliferation of the connective tissue resulting in fibrosis.  
FibrosisConnective tissue changes as a result of proliferation of the connective tissue, e.g. in case of chronic, protein-rich oedema; also as a consequence of x-ray radiation (radiogenic fibrosis) 
Fontaine French surgeon (Strasbourg) who classified the severity of PAD into different stages:
- I. Hardly any symptoms, easily tied, cold sensation on the legs
- II. Intermittent claudication (limping) (q.v.)
- III. Rest pain due to oxygen deprivation
- IV. Rest pain and necrosis, gangrene (q.v.)
 
G  
‘Gaiter’ ulcerLeg ulcer that surround the lower leg like gaiters  
GangreneProgression after cell death and necrosis 
GestationPregnancy 
H  
HaemangiomaBenign tumour of the blood vessels  
HaematocritPercentage by volume of packed red blood cells of the total blood; important in artificial haemodilution 
HaematomaBruising  
HaemodilutionBlood thinning  
Haemodynamics Flow rate of the blood in the vessels 
Haemoglobin Protein that gives red blood cells their characteristic colour 
HaemorrhageBleeding 
HeparinAnticoagulant that slows clotting of the blood
HeterogeneousConsisting of dissimilar elements or parts; not homogeneous
HomogeneousUniform; not heterogeneous
Hydrostatic pressurePressure of a fluid column over the observed position
HyperaemiaIncreased amount of blood
Active: “increased blood circulation” due to increased activity of an organ
Passive: due to impaired drainage = congestion
Hyperkeratosis(Greek: hyper: over) excessive cornification of the skin
HypertensionHigh blood pressure
HypertrophicRaised, enlarged, still active
Hypertrophic scarConnective tissue overgrowth of irregular shape due to an excess of collagen fibres
Hypodermitis(Greek: hypo: under) inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue
I  
Inhalation injuryDamage to the lungs by inhalation of toxic substances  
InjectionInsertion of liquid into the body with a syringe
- intraarterial (into the artery)
- intravenous (into the vein)
- intramuscular (into the muscle)
- intracutaneous (into the skin)
- subcutaneous (under the skin)
 
InsufficiencyWeakness, inadequate performance of an organ or organ system  
IntermittentIrregular  
Intermittent compression Pneumatic decongestion of a limb with intermittent, variable air pressure 
Interstitial Pertaining to the interstitium 
InterstitiumIntercellular spaces 
IrreducibleNon-retractable; cannot be corrected
IrremediableCannot be reconstructed; incurable
IrreversibleCannot be reversed
IschaemiaReduced blood content in the tissues
1. Absolute ischaemia = absolute bloodlessness due to a vascular occlusion
2. Relative ischaemia = insufficient supply – discrepancy between supply and demand; most frequent consequence: necrosis
K  
KeloidExcessive growth of connective tissue extending from the wound area to healthy skin
KeratinocytesBase cells of the epidermis  
L  
LaplaceLaplace’s equation: Pressure P = tension of a bandage = T divided by the radius of a cylinder = r
This equation means that the pressure exerted on the cylinder-like lower leg by compression treatment is directly proportional to the tension of the bandage, but inversely proportional to the radius of the lower leg. The smaller the circumference, the greater the pressure at the same force
 
Laplace, Marquis deBorn in Paris; 1749–1827; mathematician  
Latency Concealed, hidden state of an illness
Latency periodAsymptomatic precursory stage of an illness
Latent Concealed, hidden; asymptomatic  
LateralAt the side; at the outside of a limb (at the inside: medial)
Lateral branch varicosis(also tributary varicosis) These are varicose veins that develop in the side branch veins that empty into the trunk veins/saphenous veins (called side branch veins although they empty into the trunk veins; “roots” would be more correct)
LatexRubber milk; watery dispersion of natural (rubber) or synthetic polymers
LesionDamage, injury
Lipoedema Jodhpur-like, bilateral, symmetrical swelling caused by fatty deposits from the iliac crests to the malleoli (especially in women); as lipo-lymphoedema in combination with lymphoedema.
LipodermatosclerosisCallosity of the skin and of the subcutaneous fatty and connective tissue in the final stages of a chronic phlebo-lymphostatic insufficiency in the lower leg
Lipo-lymphoedema
Combination of lipoedema and lymphoedema. In contrast to lipoedema that ends at ankle height, with swelling of instep, positive Stemmer’s sign (q.v.) and asymmetrical development
Liposuction Invasive procedure, also for the treatment of lipoedema
LocationPlace
Long-stretch bandagessee Compression rolls
Low-protein oedemaOedema with low (below 1g%) protein concentration (e.g. hunger oedema)
Low-volume insufficiencyMechanical insufficiency: Disorder of the lymphatic system leading to an insufficient capacity to dispose of all lymph-obligatory proteins and waste products
LRRAbbreviation of light reflection rheography, an optimised photoplethysmography (see PPG)
LymphTissue fluid
Lymphadenitis Inflammation of a lymph node
LymphangiomaA benign lump originating in the lymphatic system
LymphangiopathyDisease of the lymph vessels
LymphangitisInflammation of one or more of the lymph vessels
Lymphatic collectorCollector vessel for outflowing lymph
Lymphatic drainageStroking massage technique to eliminate lymph congestion
Lymphatic systemTransports lymph from the distal to the proximal part of the body
a) superficial l.: follows the greater veins and removes metabolic waste and other waste products from the skin and subcutis.
b) deep l.: follows the vessels within the fascia and removes metabolic waste and other waste products from the bones, joints and muscles. The two systems connect at the thigh and foot. In contrast to the venous system where the blood flows from the outside to the depths inside, lymphatic flow direction is from the depths to the outside.
Lymph glandArchaic name for lymph nodes
Lymph nodesFiltering station of the lymphatic system
LymphoedemaAccumulation of fluid caused by impaired lymph drainage
LymphogenicOriginating from lymph or the lymphatic system
LymphographyX-ray imaging of lymph vessels following injection of a contrast agent
LymphoscintigraphyDiagnostic procedure using a lymph-obligatory macromolecule with a radioactive label for the visualisation of the lymphatic system and for measuring the speed of the lymph flow over the half-life (T/2) as well as the quantitative measurement of radioactivity stored in the regional lymph nodes at rest and after movement
M  
Major veinssee Veins; the major veins and muscular veins together form the deep venous system located within the fascia
MalleolusMedial ankle (tibial) on the inside of the lower leg, lateral (fibular) on the outside of the lower leg 
Manual therapyJoint and soft tissue technique in physiotherapy 
Medium-stretch bandagessee Compression rolls
Mesh graft, meshingCutting a transplant into a mesh pattern  
Metabolism All chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism 
Microanastomosis Connection made surgically between small blood vessels 
MicroangiopathyDisorder affecting the small blood vessels
 
MicrocirculationCirculation of the blood and tissue fluids in the terminal vessels, between the end of the artery and beginning of the vein (capillary system)
MobilisationMaking something move, e.g. stiff joints through exercise
MonitoringChecking the body function
N  
NecrosectomyRemoval of dead tissue 
NecroticDead 
Neurotrophic foot ulcerPressure ulcer in neuropathic disorders with impaired sensation; less frequent in leprosy, more frequent in diabetic or alcoholic neuropathies
O  
Obesity

Excess adipose tissue

a) gynoid (female) fat distribution with wide hips and thick legs

b) android (male) fat distribution with pot belly and slim legs

Occupational therapyThe use of productive or creative activity to maintain or restore function with the objective of becoming as independent as possible
OedemaAccumulation of fluid 
OestrogenFemale sex hormone (follicle hormone)
OscillographyMethod for measuring the volume rate in the limbs, providing information on the quality of the arterial blood supply 
P  
PalpationExamination by touch  
PapillaryNipple-like (from Latin: papilla: nipple-like protuberance) 
PathogenesisOrigin and development of a disease  
Patient historyInformation on the medical history of the disease
Percutaneous Through the skin
Perforate Penetrate; puncture
Perforator veinCross-link between the superficial venous system outside the fascia and the deep venous system surrounded by fascia (see also Venae); the name implies that the fascia is perforated).  
Perimalleolar oedemaSwelling; confined to the area behind the ankles
Perimalleolar regionHollow behind the ankle, often the location of a venous leg ulcer
PerniosisChilblains 
Phlebectasia Dilation of the veins without varicosity
PhlebectomySurgical removal of a vein
PhlebitisInflammation of a vein
PhleboedemaLeg swelling due to venous insufficiency
Phlebography Radiologic imaging of veins by mean of radiopaque dyes (see also Angiography)
Phlebology
Scientific study of veins and venous diseases
Phlebothrombosis Deep vein thrombosis
Phlegmasia alba dolensThrombosis of the iliac and femoral veins; swelling of the leg, milky-whiteness, pain, fever
Phlegmasia coerulea dolensAcute massive vein occlusion in the leg; clotting of the blood in all leg veins with inadequate arterial blood supply due to reflex constriction
Physical therapyPhysiotherapy for the treatment of functional impairments
PigmentationColouring (esp. the pigments of the skin after exposure to UV light)
PigmentsColouring agents
PlateletThrombocyte; promotes blood clotting
PlethysmographyRecording the volume increase of an extremity to determine the blood flow in case of an obstruction in venous drainage
PlexusNetwork of nerves
PODArterial occlusive disease
Post-thrombotic(Latin: post: after) following a thrombosis
Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS)Sum of the abnormal skin changes on the lower leg, from swellings to ulcers as a consequence of deep vein thrombosis
Post-traumaticFollowing a trauma
PPG(photoplethysmography)
A sensor head is used to beam light onto the uppermost layer of the skin, reflected back from here and read by the sensor head. The electronic comparison of the emitted light with the light received back provides information about the presence and severity of vein congestion (see also LRR)
Pressure gradientFor medical compression stockings: the pressure gradient from the bottom to the top, from distal to proximal
PrimaryThe first; original
Primary intention healingHealing of a wound without complications
Primary lymphoedemaLymphoedema triggered by impaired development of the lymphatic system
PrognosisPrediction about the course of a disease
ProgressiveAdvancing
Proliferation Excessive growth
ProphylacticPrevention (of diseases)
Protein-rich oedemaOedema with a protein content of several gram percent (e.g. lymphoedema, oedema due to inflammation); chronic protein-rich oedema results in secondary abnormal tissue changes (connective tissue proliferation; fibrosis; sclerosis; excessive fat)
ProthrombinInactive precursor to thrombin (q.v.) in the blood-clotting process
ProximalPart of a limb nearest the trunk; opposite: distal
PTSAbbreviation for post-thrombotic syndrome (q.v.)
R  
RAL guidelinesQuality requirements for medical compression stockings
RefluxBackward flow of a fluid (e.g. blood)
 
RelapseRecurrence of a disease after healing
ResistanceDefence, protection  
Resting pressurePressure exerted by a bandage or support without muscle activity. The higher the elasticity of a bandage or support, the greater its resting pressure and the lower its working pressure.
Restless Legs Syndrome Feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs while resting in bed at night, forcing the person to move the legs, e.g. in Parkinson’s disease  
Rest painPain at rest
Reticular Netlike 
Reticular veinsVaricose veins in the surface network of the veins (see Varicose veins)
 
Rule of ninesRule for calculating the total body surface area affected by a burn by dividing into 11 x 9 + 1 percentages
S  
Saphenofemoral junctionPoint where the great saphenous vein joins the femoral vein at the groin area
Saphenous varicose veinsVaricosity in either the great saphenous vein or the small saphenous vein (q.v.)
SclerosisPathological hardening of an organ
SclerotherapyInjection of a sclerosing solution that causes the vein walls to stick together and seal shut (see also Sclerotisation)
Sclerotisation see Sclerotherapy
SecondaryOf second degree, following; dependent
Secondary healing Delayed wound healing
Secondary infectionInfection by another pathogen in an already infected wound
Secondary lymphoedema A protein-rich oedema that develops due to a mechanical or low-volume insufficiency (q.v.) of the lymph vessels.
Secondary sutureSuture of an originally infected wound after the infection has been eliminated
Secondary varicose veinsVaricose veins that develop due to deep vein thrombosis  
SecretionDischarge product
SerologyArea of immunology; scientific study of the body’s immunological reactions and properties
Seroma1. Accumulation of lymph that builds up in pockets
2. Build-up of fluid in a sutured wound
SerousFrom serum; fluid accumulations that primarily consist of serum
Serum Non-coagulable yellowish blood fluid that has been separated from blood cells and fibrin
Short-stretch bandagessee Compression rolls
Skeletal-muscle pumpAbility of a muscle to effect the venous return of the blood
Spider veinssee Varicose veins
Split-thickness skin graftWafer-thin, resected upper layer of the skin of an unburnt part of the body
Stasis dermatitis Inflammatory skin reaction on the congested lower leg
Stasis dermatosisCollective term for abnormal skin changes due to congestion on the lower leg with the exception of venous ulcers
Stemmer’s signWidening of the skin folds on the toes or fingers or the inability to lift the folds
Stripping procedureSurgical removal of varicose veins by stripping
SubcutisFunctional
SufficientArchaic name for lymph nodes
SystemicPertaining to or affecting the body as a whole
T  
Take rateNumber of transplants that have healed in 
Tangential excisionRemoval of burnt skin in thin layers
 
TelangiectasiasDilation of tiny blood vessels near the skin  
ThermographyDetection of impaired peripheral blood circulation by registering temperature fluctuations in the skin that are depicted on the thermogram image in different colours  
Thrombangiitis obliterans (also Buerger disease) Arterial and venous occlusive disorder, common among young men  
Thrombectomy Surgical removal of a blot clot (thrombus) 
ThrombinThe use of drugs to dissolve a blot clot (thrombus) by means of certain enzymes (streptokinase, urokinase) 
ThrombolysisRecurrence of a disease after healing
ThrombophlebitisInflammation of a vein; mostly used to describe inflammation of superficial veins
ThrombosisOcclusion of a vessel, vein or artery due to clotting (blood clot)
ThrombusBlood clot formed in the blood vessel or the heart
TraumaInjury, wound or similar, caused by external forces
U  
Ulcer A break in the skin; long-lasting (chronic) sore
 
Ultrasound examinations
in phlebology
a) Doppler ultrasound. Blood flow measurement using Doppler ultrasonography (see also Doppler)
b) duplex ultrasound. Imaging technique for the visualisation of vessels, determining their location and inside diameter
 
Urticaria Nettle rash/reddening of the skin  
Urticarial Of nettle-like appearance 
V  
Valsalva manoeuvrePressure (as during bowel movement) for vein readings, named after the anatomist Antonio Valsalva (Bologna 1666–1723)  
Valve insufficiencyInsufficient valve closure in the veins or the heart
Varicophlebitis Inflammation of a varicose vein 
Varicose veinsVeins that have become enlarged and twisted  
Varix(Latin: varus: crooked) or varices, varicose vein
Branch (lateral branch varicosis) = varicose veins that run toward the saphenous varicose vein at an oblique angle
Spider veins = thin clusters of veins close to the surface of the skin
Reticular veins = varicose veins arranged in a netlike fashion at a distance from the two large stems
Saphenous varicose veins = varicosity the great saphenous vein or the small saphenous vein
 
Vas (Latin: vessel)
- extravascular, outside the vessel
- intravascular, inside the vessel
 
VasculitisInflammation of a vessel
VeinBlood vessel leading to the heart (Latin: vena)
- posterior arcuate vein
- femoral vein (thigh)
- iliac vein (common, internal, external)
- popliteal vein
- great saphenous vein; originates at the back of the forefoot, turns to the inside of the leg at the inner ankle and joins the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction (q.v.) below the groin
- small saphenous vein; originates at the lateral edge of the foot, runs behind the ankle to the back of the lower leg, pierces the muscle fascia behind the knee to join a deep vein
Vein bypassBypass of an obstructed blood vessel by transplanting a vein
Vein remediesGroup of plant-based, semisynthetic or synthetic medicines to treat vein problems
VenaePlural of vein: Veins
- communicant veins = cross-links within a surface and deep vein system
- perforator veins = cross-links between the surface and deep vein system; called perforators because they pierce the fascia. The perforators are the connections of the one-way blood flow from the surface to the deeper structure.
VenousPertaining to the veins
Venous capacityAmount of blood the leg veins can take when the body is moved to the upright position
Venous hypertensionElevated blood pressure in the veins, mostly as a result of return flow problems
Venous leg ulcerLeg ulcer
Venous pressureThe pressure in the vein. With a right ventricular failure, the venous pressure of the entire venous system is elevated (generalised phlebohypertension)
Venous systemPart of the circulatory system that transports the blood from the periphery to the heart.
A distinction is made between three different venous systems in the leg:
1. the superficial venous system located outside the fascia, also called the capacitance system because its task, among others, is to store and make available blood to be transported to the “lift” of the deep veins
2. the deep venous system located inside the muscle fascia; comprises muscular veins for waste disposal from the muscles and major veins for transport to the trunk
3. the perforator vein system that pierces through the fascia
Venous valvesValves in the veins that are designed to facilitate the one-way flow of the blood from the periphery to the heart and prevent backflow (if undamaged)
Venules (plural) The smallest veins collecting used blood from the capillaries to transport it to the trunk
VesselHere: blood or lymph vessel
W  
Working pressurePressure of a bandage during muscle activity. Result due to three factors:
Tensile strength and elasticity of the bandage as well as the number of times the bandage was wrapped around the body part